They are found year-round in parts of the northern United States. Birds that breed closer to the Arctic will migrate south to the United States for the winter. In some parts of California, there are areas where geese are found year-round. For more information on their range, check out this map by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology.
Their migratory v-formations headed north in the spring and south in the fall are widely recognized as symbols of the changing seasons.
Canada geese tend to forage in moist fields and manicured lawns.
Canada geese are also known to eat aquatic plants.
Canada geese build their nests near water.
Females select the location, and do most of the work to construct a cup-shaped nest. They lay 2 – 8 eggs, which hatch after around a month of incubation. The hatchlings are covered in yellow down. As precocial hatchlings, they are able to walk, swim, and dive as soon as they leave the nest. The young will stay with their parents for a year, traveling as a family group.
Breeding pairs are monogamous, and have low rates of “divorce” – or splitting up. They form pairs usually during their second year of life.
When birdwatching, it pays to look closely at flocks of Canada geese.
I’ve been delighted during some birding walks to find another species mixed in with flocks of Canada geese. While at Shoreline Regional Park, I was lucky enough to find some greater white-fronted geese foraging with the Canada goose flock I was watching. Greater white-fronted geese are a rarer species in the Bay Area, so it was a treat to be able to watch them.
Cool facts about Canada Geese:
Contrary to popular belief, the term “Canadian Goose” is incorrect. The common name of this species is “Canada Goose”.
Redwood sorrel folds its leaves when exposed to direct sunlight.
When the leaves are in direct sunlight, they shrivel up and fold downwards within minutes. Sensitive cells in the plant detect the wavelength of light hitting it, causing the leaves to fold downwards when exposed to harsh light. This process is called nyctinasty.
Redwood sorrel’s folding is attributed to its sensitivity to bright sunlight. Because it is adapted to growing in low light conditions, intense light can damage the plant. Thus, folding its leaves is thought to protect it from harm.
To watch a time-lapse of this movement, check out this YouTube video. Please note that the plant shown is Oxalis triangularis, a different plant species in the same family as redwood sorrel.
Redwood sorrel is found on the West Coast of North America, from California to Canada.
It prefers understory habitats, often growing in coast redwood or Douglas fir forests beneath the shade of trees. It is one of the most common plants in the coast redwood understory.
Redwood sorrel leaves resemble clovers.
The leaves are 0.4 – 1.8 inches long. Redwood sorrel also has tiny (0.5 – 0.8 inch) flowers, which range from white to pink in color. Flowers can be seen in bloom from February to September.
Redwood sorrel is a good replacement for English ivy in a native plant garden.
Looking to make the conversion to native plants in your garden? Alternatively, are you looking for more native plants to introduce to your existing native garden? Consider the redwood sorrel. This plant grows well in shady conditions, forming a dense carpet beneath trees.
For more information on the planting and care of redwood sorrel in your garden, check out this article by S.F. Gate.
Cool facts about redwood sorrel:
Redwood sorrel is truly adapted to shady environments, as it is able to photosynthesize in levels of light that are 1/200th of full sunlight.
The family name of redwood sorrels, Oxalis, is derived from the Greek word “oxys”, meaning sour. This is because the leaves of plants in this family have a sour taste.
Beware of eating too much of any plant in this family, as they contain oxalic acid. Oxalic acid can be toxic when consumed in large quantities.
Scientists hypothesize that the columbine ancestor made its way from Central Asia to Alaska thousands of years ago by the the Bering land bridge that connected Asia to North America. Evidence of the columbine’s travels have been supported by DNA analyses of columbine species from around the world.
After its arrival in Alaska, the columbine ancestor begin to radiate out to other parts of North America. The evolution of North American species is hypothesized to be driven by pollinator specialization. For example, multiple species of red columbines have adapted red flowers (distinct from blue and yellow-flowered columbines found in other parts of the U.S.) and higher sugar contents in their nectar – an adaptation thought to meet the demands of their hummingbird pollinators.
The best time to see crimson columbine bloom is March – May.
The plant can be found in forest and meadow habitats where the soil is moist.
The outer, red parts of the flower are actually sepals. The “true” petals are the yellow parts on the inside of the flower. Overall, the entire flower is about 2 inches long.
Crimson columbine attracts pollinators, including hummingbirds.
These flowers are also relatively deer-proof, making them a great option to include in a California native plant garden. For more tips on how to cultivate crimson columbines in your garden, check out these tips from the Las Pilitas Nursery.
Cool facts about crimson columbine:
Its genus name, Aquilegia, is derived from the latin word aquila, meaning “eagle”. This name is thought to refer to its upright red sepals, which look like an eagle’s talons.
The flower’s common name, columbine, is derived from the latin word columba, meaning dove-like.
Anna’s hummingbirds are permanent residents in the Bay Area.
While some species of hummingbird migrate during the winter, the Anna’s hummingbird stays in the Bay Area year-round.
Their range has greatly expanded beyond its initial restriction to California and Baja California. Today, Anna’s hummingbirds can be found in parts of the southwestern United States, as well as up in British Columbia, Canada. Their expansion is thought to be related to their adaptability to feeding on exotic flowers and their use of artificial food sources (hummingbird feeders).
Anna’s hummingbirds are the most common hummingbirds on the west coast.
They can be found in a variety of habitats, ranging from urban gardens to open oak woodlands. Individuals can be located easily by listening for their buzzy song, which is often sung from atop a perch.
Anna’s hummingbirds eat nectar and insects.
Anna’s hummingbirds feed of nectar from native and non-native plant species, as well as artificial nectar provided at hummingbird feeders. It’s estimated that 90% of a hummingbird’s diet is composed of nectar, whereas the remaining 10% is composed of small insects.
Anna’s hummingbirds are a bright and feisty visitor at my own hummingbird feeders. They can be quite territorial, as exemplified by some individuals perching near the feeders and chasing away any unwelcome visitors that wander over in search of food.
Anna’s hummingbird males generate a non-vocal “squeak” during their breeding displays.
Females are responsible for all nesting responsibilities.
Anna’s hummingbirds have a breeding system in which females are solely responsible for parental care. Female Anna’s hummingbirds construct nests of soft plant fiber and spiderwebs that are 1.5 inches in diameter and 1 inch high. She lays 2 eggs, which take 16 days to hatch. Once hatched, the female will feed and care for the young until they are old enough to fly out of the nest at 23 days old.
Cool facts about Anna’s hummingbirds:
In the Bay Area, an Anna’s hummingbird nest once delayed construction at the Richmond-San Rafael bridge. The nest, protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, was discovered in a grove of trees designated to be cut down for the expansion. The crew halted removing the trees until after the nest and birds were gone.
Anna’s hummingbirds are capable of torpor. When temperatures drop outside at night, Anna’s hummingbirds will also drop their own body temperatures. They simultaneously slow their heart rates and breathing to enter a hibernation-like state. Once temperatures rise again, they resume normal bodily functions.
All hummingbirds are only found in North and South America.
Brown pelicans have made a dramatic return from their critically low numbers in the 1970’s due to the effects of DDT. However, the fight for the brown pelican is far from over: today, they face threats from food scarcity as Pacific sardine and anchovy numbers have shown declines.
California brown pelicans faced critically low numbers in the 1970’s from the effects of DDT and endrin.
From the 1950’s to 1970’s, the brown pelican almost disappeared from North America due to the effects of pesticides, namely endrin and DDT. DDT weakened the strength of breeding birds’ eggshells, resulting in failed breeding attempts as parents crushed eggs while trying to incubate.
The plummeting populations resulted in the species being federally listed as endangered. The ban of DDT in 1972, as well as the decrease in use of endrin, allowed pelican numbers to recuperate. By 2009, the species had recovered enough for its endangered listing to be lifted.
On the west coast, pelican populations face declines from lack of food availability.
Today, all brown pelicans still face threats from oil spills, entanglement in fishing gear, and disruption during their breeding season.
On the west coast in particular, however, pelican populations face starvation due to a decrease in the availability of Pacific sardines and anchovies. Overfishing and unusually warm waters have caused declines in the two fish populations, which has in turn negatively impacted brown pelican populations. In 2010, emaciated pelicans were reported at California wildlife centers. Younger pelican individuals were even recorded going after murre colonies in Oregon, grabbing chicks and shaking them until they regurgitated fish for the pelicans to eat.
Juvenile California brown pelicans appear brown overall, whereas adults sport more rich coloration.
Non-breeding adult pelicans have yellowish faces and white necks. The rest of their bodies are brownish gray.
During the breeding season, the necks of adult brown pelicans turn reddish-brown in color. On the west coast, breeding adults also develop a red throat. Birds in breeding plumage can be seen from December through August.
Juvenile brown pelicans are brown above and whitish below, with grayish bills.
California brown pelicans can be found resting along California’s coast.
Brown pelicans can be found foraging in shallow waters. When they’re not searching for food or breeding, they can be found resting in areas near the coast.
While in flight, birds will typically form lines. Their flight is extremely graceful, as they glide and flap in unison.
California brown pelicans feed by diving in the water.
They feed primarily on fish, diving head-first into the water from 20 – 40 feet in the air to capture their prey. Before swallowing the captured fish, pelicans empty their pouches of water. The California brown pelican and the Peruvian pelican are the only two pelican species that plunge dives for food.
Gulls, particularly Heermann’s gulls, are known to steal fish from the pouches of brown pelicans that have just returned from a dive.
California brown pelicans nest colonially on the ground.
To breed, brown pelicans form colonies, meaning that they nest in large groups with members of the same species. Their nests are usually constructed of sticks.
They lay 3 eggs on average, which hatch after 4 weeks of incubation. Once the eggs hatch, the young are cared for by both parents.
Cool facts about California brown pelicans:
The largest roosting site for brown pelicans in the Bay Area is in Alameda on Breakwater Island. Breakwater Island is an L-shaped island in Alameda, built from rocks to help reduce wave action in the area.
Brown pelican pouches can hold up to 2.6 gallons of water.
Brown pelicans can live to be up to 30 years old.
Brown pelicans are incredibly large, with wingspans of 6.5 to 7.5 feet.
Sticky monkeyflowers are drought-tolerant perennials, making them a water-wise plant that will return year after year. Their flowers also attract hummingbirds, bringing awesome wildlife to your garden.
If deer are a consideration in your area, monkeyflowers are also quite deer-resistant.
For more information on the species that you can plant in your own garden, check out this helpful page by the Las Pilitas Nursery.
Cool facts about sticky monkeyflowers:
Their genus, Mimulus, is related to the latin word mimus, meaning a mime or comic. This is thought to be because of the shape of their flower, which resembles a comic or mime.
The “monkeyflower” part of their name is derived from the shape of their flowers, which are thought to resemble smiling monkeys. I often have trouble seeing it, but try it yourself when you encounter them!
Sticky monkeyflowers were used by Native Americans as treatments for various ailments and as decorative pieces. For more information, check out this page by the National Park Service.